Thursday, March 19, 2020

Organizational behaviour and organisational analysis of behaviour in Pizza Hut The WritePass Journal

Organizational behaviour and organisational analysis of behaviour in Pizza Hut 1. Introduction Organizational behaviour and organisational analysis of behaviour in Pizza Hut 1. Introduction2. Mission Statement3. Marketing Strategy4. References Related 1. Introduction Organisational behaviour and organisational analysis are both subjects that deal with the behaviour of people in organizations, and together they contain a wealth of knowledge about this matter. However, each one has a somewhat different focus. The traditional concern of organisational behaviour is at macro level of organization and so it normally has a heavy, if not exclusive focus on the characteristics and processes of individuals and groups. Conversely, organizational analysis is much more heavily focused on the organization as a whole and deals with characteristics such as structure, effectiveness, goals and culture and also with process such as control, communication and change. (Rollinson, Broadfield Edwards, 1998, p.18).   To identify and critically analyse an organisational behaviour and/or human resource issue facing an organisation I have chosen the Company Pizza Hut. Pizza Hut (corporately known as Pizza Hut, Inc.) is an American restaurant chain and international franchise. Pizza Hut was founded in 1958 by brothers Dan and Frank Carney in their home town of Wichita, Kansas and headquarters in Plano, Texas, US.   A small 25 seat restaurant only had room for 9 letters on the sign†¦ the building looked like a hut. So ‘Pizza Hut’ was born! 2. Mission Statement A mission statement identifies operational objectives, assists in goal-directed behaviour of staff, describes performance standards, and speaks to organisational survival (Smith, Heady, Carson Carson, 2001).   And Williams (2002) suggested that organisations with a more comprehensive mission statement do better financially than those with an ambiguous mission or no mission at all. Similarly Pizza Hut takes pride in making perfect pizza and providing courteous and helpful service on time and all the time. They are the employers of choice offering team members opportunities for growth, advancement, and rewarding careers in a fun, safe working environment. 3. Marketing Strategy Most businesses find it easier to formulate strategies that outline how they intend to achieve their goals than how to implement them (Noble and Mokwa, 1999; Walker and Ruekert, 1987). The literature suggests that an important cause of such strategy implementation difficulties is the way businesses organize their marketing activities (McKee, Varadarajan, and Pride, 1989 and Walker and Ruekert, 1987).   In particular, marketing theory posits that to enable strategy implementation and achieve superior performance, managers should organize marketing activities in different ways depending on their business strategy (Slater and Olson 2000; Walker and Ruekert 1987).   However Pizza Hut is successfully enabled its marketing strategy. Pizza Hut marketing strategy is very simple: â€Å"We want to satisfy our customer by offering them the best.† In 1995, Pizza Hut began two customer satisfaction programs: a 1-800 number customer hotline, and a customer call-back program. These were implemented to make sure their customers were happy, and always wanted to return. 4. References Books, Web and Journals: 1. McKee, Daryl O., P. Rajan Varadarajan, and William M. Pride (1989), Strategic Adaptability and Firm Performance: A Market-Contingent Perspective, Journal of Marketing, 53 (July), 21-35. 2. Derek Rollinson, Aysen Broadfield and David J. Edwards. (1998). Organisational behaviour and analysis: an integrated approach. New York: Harlow: Addison-Wesley. p18. 3. Noble, Charles H. and Michael P. Mokwa (1999), Implementing Marketing Strategies: Developing and Testing a Managerial Theory, Journal of Marketing, 63 (October), 57-73. 4. Ruekert, Robert W. and Orville C. Walker (1987), Interactions Between Marketing and RD Departments in Implementing Different Business Strategies, Strategic Management Journal, 8 (May-June), 233-48. 5. Slater, Stanley F. (1995), Issues in Conducting Marketing Strategy Research, Journal of Strategic Marketing, 3(December), 257-70. 6. Smith, M., Heady, R. B., Carson, P. P., Carson, K. D. (2001). Do missions accomplish their missions? An exploratory analysis of mission statement content and organizational longevity. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, available on-line at huizenga.nova.edu/jame/. 7. Williams, C. (2002). Effective Management. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Publishing. fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Pizza-Hut-Inc-Company-History.html

Monday, March 2, 2020

Definition and Examples of Deep Structure in Grammar

Definition and Examples of Deep Structure in Grammar In transformational and generative grammar, deep structure (also known as  deep grammar  or  D-structure)  is the underlying syntactic structure- or level- of a sentence. In contrast to surface structure (the outward form of a sentence), deep structure is an abstract representation that identifies the ways a sentence can be analyzed and interpreted. Deep structures are generated by phrase-structure rules, and surface structures are derived from deep structures by a series of transformations. In  The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar  (2014), Aarts, Chalker, and Weiner point out that, in a looser sense: deep and surface structure are often used as terms in a simple binary opposition, with the deep structure representing meaning, and the surface structure being the actual sentence we see. The terms deep structure and surface structure were popularized in the 1960s and 70s by American linguist Noam Chomsky, who eventually discarded the concepts in his minimalist program in the 1990s.   Properties of Deep Structure Deep structure  is a level of syntactic representation with a number of properties that need not necessarily go together. Four important properties of deep structure are: Major grammatical relations, such as  subject  of  and  object  of, are defined at deep structure.All  lexical  insertion occurs at deep structure.All transformations occur after deep structure.Semantic  interpretation occurs at deep structure. The question of whether there is a single level of representation with these properties was the most debated question in  generative grammar  following the publication of  Aspects  [of the Theory of Syntax, 1965]. One part of the debate focused on whether transformations preserve meaning.(Alan Garnham,  Psycholinguistics: Central Topics. Psychology Press, 1985) Examples and Observations [Noam] Chomsky had identified a basic grammatical structure in Syntactic Structures [1957] that he referred to as kernel sentences. Reflecting mentalese, kernel sentences were where words and meaning first appeared in the complex cognitive process that resulted in an utterance. In [Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, 1965], Chomsky abandoned the notion of kernel sentences and identified the underlying constituents of sentences as deep structure. The deep structure was versatile insofar as it accounted for meaning and provided the basis for transformations that turned deep structure into surface structure, which represented what we actually hear or read. Transformation rules, therefore, connected deep structure and surface structure, meaning and syntax.(James D. Williams, The Teachers Grammar Book. Lawrence Erlbaum, 1999)[Deep structure is a] representation of the syntax of a sentence distinguished by varying criteria from its surface structure. E.g. in the surface structure of Children are hard to please, the subject is children and the infinitive to please is the complement of hard. But in its deep structure, as it was understood especially in the early 1970s, is hard would have as its subject a subordinate sentence in which children is the object of please: thus, in outline [please children] is hard.(P.H. Matthews, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. Oxford University Press, 2007) Evolving Perspectives on Deep Structure The remarkable first chapter of Noam Chomskys Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1965) set the agenda for everything that has happened in generative linguistics since. Three theoretical pillars support the enterprise: mentalism, combinatoriality, and acquisition... A fourth major point of Aspects, and the one that attracted most attention from the wider public, concerned the notion of Deep Structure. A basic claim of the 1965 version of generative grammar was that in addition to the surface form of sentences (the form we hear), there is another level of syntactic structure, called Deep Structure, which expresses underlying syntactic regularities of sentences. For instance, a passive sentence like (1a) was claimed to have a Deep Structure in which the noun phrases are in the order of the corresponding active (1b): (1a) The bear was chased by the lion.(1b) The lion chased the bear. Similarly, a question such as (2a) was claimed to have a Deep Structure closely resembling that of the corresponding declarative (2b): (2a) Which martini did Harry drink?(2b) Harry drank that martini. ...Following a hypothesis first proposed by Katz and Postal (1964), Aspects made the striking claim that the relevant level of syntax for determining meaning is Deep Structure. In its weakest version, this claim was only that regularities of meaning are most directly encoded in Deep Structure, and this can be seen in (1) and (2). However, the claim was sometimes taken to imply much more: that Deep Structure is meaning, an interpretation that Chomsky did not at first discourage. And this was the part of generative linguistics that got everyone really excited- for if the techniques of transformational grammar could lead us to meaning, we would be in a position to uncover the nature of human thought... When the dust of the ensuing linguistic wars cleared around 1973 . . ., Chomsky had won (as usual)- but with a twist: he no longer claimed that Deep Structure was the sole level that determines meaning (Chomsky 1972). Then, with the battle over, he turned his attention, not to meaning, but to relatively technical constraints on movement transformations (e.g. Chomsky 1973, 1977).(Ray Jackendoff, Language, Consciousness, Culture: Essays on Mental Structure. MIT Press, 2007) Surface Structure and Deep Structure in a Sentence by Joseph Conrad [Consider] the final sentence of [Joseph Conrads short story] The Secret Sharer: Walking to the taffrail, I was in time to make out, on the very edge of a darkness thrown by a towering black mass like the very gateway of Erebus- yes, I was in time to catch an evanescent glimpse of my white hat left behind to mark the spot where the secret sharer of my cabin and of my thoughts, as though he were my second self, had lowered himself into the water to take his punishment: a free man, a proud swimmer striking out for a new destiny. I hope others will agree that the sentence justly represents its author: that it portrays a mind energetically stretching to subdue a dazzling experience outside the self, in a way that has innumerable counterparts elsewhere. How does scrutiny of the deep structure support this intuition? First, notice a matter of emphasis, of rhetoric. The matrix sentence, which lends a surface form to the whole, is # S # I was in time # S # (repeated twice). The embedded sentences that complete it are I walked to the taffrail, I made out NP, and I caught NP. The point of departure, then, is the narrator himself: where he was, what he did, what he saw. But a glance at the deep structure will explain why one feels a quite different emphasis in the sentence as a whole: seven of the embedded sentences have sharer as grammatical subjects; in another three the subject is a noun linked to sharer by the copula; in two sharer is direct object; and in two more share is the verb. Thus thirteen sentences go to the semantic development of sharer as follows: The secret sharer had lowered the secret sharer into the water.The secret sharer took his punishment.The secret sharer swam.The secret sharer was a swimmer.The swimmer was proud.The swimmer struck out for a new destiny.The secret sharer was a man.The man was free.The secret sharer was my secret self.The secret sharer had (it).(Someone) punished the secret sharer.(Someone) shared my cabin.(Someone) shared my thoughts. In a fundamental way, the sentence is mainly about Leggatt, although the surface structure indicates otherwise... [The] progression in the deep structure rather precisely mirrors both the rhetorical movement of the sentence from the narrator to Leggatt via the hat that links them, and the thematic effect of the sentence, which is to transfer Leggatts experience to the narrator via the narrators vicarious and actual participation in it. Here I shall leave this abbreviated rhetorical analysis, with a cautionary word: I do not mean to suggest that only an examination of deep structure reveals Conrads skillful emphasis- on the contrary, such an examination supports and in a sense explains what any careful reader of the story notices.(Richard M. Ohmann, Literature as Sentences. College English, 1966. Rpt. in Essays in Stylistic Analysis, ed. by Howard S. Babb. Harcourt, 1972)

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Friction Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Friction - Lab Report Example From the experiment, it is clear that the static friction force for block with one weight and block for two weight is higher than the kinetic friction force for both masses. This is to enable the object move at a constant velocity. The static friction force for block with one weight and two weight were 6.254  ± 0.7658 N and 3.773  ± 0.4060 N respectively. While the kinetic friction for the same masses was 2.472  ± 0.1193 N and 1.361 ± 0.09464 N. respectively. On the other hand, the co-efficient of static friction for block with one weight and two weight was 0.6134  ±0.20297 and 0.5667 ± 0.1224 respectively. While, co-efficient of kinetic friction for the same masses were 0.22127 ± 0.1224 and 0.22400  ± 0.019076. Both the coefficient of static and kinetic friction was consistent with the values obtained by other groups. These result shows that the coefficient of static friction reduces as more weight is added to the object. The same scenario is also witnessed with the coefficient of kinetic friction. However, for a clear relationship to be obtained between the co-efficient of both static and kinetic friction more weights needs to be added on the object so as to obtain a good relationship. The obtained results showed that 70 % of the measurement lied in the (average  ± one std. deviation). While, 97.5 % of the friction force lied in the (average  ± two std. deviation). Even though, the percentages of the measurements that lie (average  ± one std. deviation) and (average  ± two std. deviation) are slightly higher than 68 % and 95 % respectively. These results are can be said to be normally

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Compare role science & technology play in Lunar Men & Heart of Essay

Compare role science & technology play in Lunar Men & Heart of Darkness. How have attitudes & uses of them changed - Essay Example le genius and ability to make new things, gain a deep understanding of the world both philosophically and physically—their inventions too are used to allow other people to more profoundly understand the physical world. In Heart of Darkness, it is the West’s ability to harness technology that makes the minerals and rubber of the Congo valuable and that makes it important to extract such products. But the novel also shows the limits to human’s knowledge—even using technology and science humans cannot know everything. When they think the do, trouble occurs. These aspects of the roles of science and technology will be looked at in this essay. One of the main points of the book Lunar Men is the sheer joy of the intellectual curiosity Uglow’s heroes possess and show. They want to find out about the world, they want to learn new things. It is this sense of adventure and exploration that drives them, even though they don’t really leave their hometown—they just meet in person. The adventure is what they learn about the world through their scientific experiments and from sharing information and curiosity with one another. It isn’t a physical journey across the world. Indeed, they don’t need to take such a journey because they can bring the world to themselves through their experiments and discoveries. Boulton, for example, when he is starting out feels an air of energy surrounding him and feels the time is ripe for â€Å"adventure,† but he doesn’t get on a merchant ship. Instead: â€Å"Armed with the security of Anne’s money and his own inheritance from his father, Boulton made plans. The workshop and warehouse on Snow Hill were too small and he dreamed of a site big enough to have stores of raw materials, drawing and design rooms, workshops for all stages and products, and a warehouse for finished goods. He also wanted a mill to drive machines . . .† (65) The latest technologies let him stay at home. For other men, like Robinson, for example, worldly

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Euthanasia: A Fatal Decision :: Free Essay Writer

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A white flash of lightening catches the glint of frantic black eyes peering from beneath frazzled grey hair. Screaming to his assistant, the frenzied scientist paces before the lifeless body on the table; his creation. As the creaking chains raise the corpse out of the roofless laboratory, the scientist’s evil laugh echoes up into night sky. This scene, often replayed in old films, captures the horror of unrestricted medical research. When a person who is ill decides that it is his or her time to die, they are, in effect, playing God by taking control of human life by deciding when it should end. Sidney Hook, an octogenarian, suffered to the point of requesting, but not receiving, his own extermination. In his article, In Defense of Voluntary Euthanasia, Hook argues that euthanasia provides an easy way to end suffering. Examining the pros and cons of euthanasia and its usefulness if legalized, it is clear that there are very few benefits involved. When deat h is made a legal and easy option, it is an attempt to take full control of life and, by doing so, opening the door to more abuse than benefits.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Euthanasia is the practice of putting to death persons who have incurable, painful, or distressing diseases or handicaps. It is commonly called mercy killing. Voluntary euthanasia may occur when individuals who are incurably ill ask their physician to put them to death or the patient may ask a doctor to withhold treatment, allowing them to die more rapidly. Many opponents of euthanasia contend that too often doctors and others in the medical profession play God on operating tables and in recovery rooms. They argue that no medical professional should be allowed to decide who lives and who dies. This is true. The time when a person dies is a decision only God should make.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  On the other hand, why would anyone want to keep a person who is desiring death from making that choice? Seneca, a well-known philosopher once said, â€Å"The wise man will live as long as he ought, not as long as he can† (qtd. in Hook 484). A considerable amount of society is in favor of euthanasia mostly because they feel that we, as free individuals, should have the right to decide for ourselves when to terminate life, especially when an individual is suffering from an incurable disease. No one wants to end up plugged into machines and wired to tubes.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Biblical World View Essay Essay

In The Essence of the New Testament: A Survey, Towns and Gutierrez, the authors concur with other Biblical scholars understanding that â€Å"the teaching of Romans is not only crucial for Christian theology, but the greatest revivals and reformations throughout the history of Christianity have resulted from an increased understanding and application of the teaching of this epistle† This essay will attempt to summarize how the first 8 chapters of this amazingly written Book of Romans shapes my own personal Biblical worldview. I will first look at 4 areas in which Paul specifically presents clear evidence to his readers of the truth of the Gospel Message. The first area He presents is in regard to the natural world that surrounds all mankind. In Roman’s 1: 19,20 Paul writes â€Å"For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. Ever since the creation of the world his eternal power and divine nature, invisible though they are, have been understood and seen through the things he has made. † I remember as a child in Sunday school that I was often taught about God by looking at natural world that surrounded me. The sunrise, the rainbow, the oceans and many more wonders that pointed me to a God who was not only very powerful but very loving, too. He gives us rain so the soil can produce food and sunlight to give warmth and water to provide life to every living thing He created. Paul presented this basic truth about God because all mankind can easily relate to the amazing natural world that affects his of her everyday life. God has created an amazing order to His World so man must know that the world they live in is a divine creation. Seeing God in nature is not only evidence for me that He is real, but also I see this natural world as another of the beautiful gifts that He gives us to enjoy. And for me, it is a strong reminder each day that God loves me. The second area Paul focuses on is our own human identity. Man’s identity is built on what he has clearly seen in nature. So, Paul quickly moves to point out that once humans have experienced God’s creation and they choose not to  honor Him â€Å"They are without excuse; for though they knew God, they did not honor Him as God of give thanks to Him, but they became futile in their thinking, and their senseless minds were darkened. † Romans1 :20-21. Paul goes on to list the many sinful ways of the darkened minds that chose not to honor God. The inspired list of sins that Paul declares leaves no room for any man to truly believe that he is without sin. It is in that list of sins that Paul shows the separation of all mankind from God. It is only in that place of acknowledgment of sin that man can begin to understand his or her human identity. My own human identity is shaped more and more each day as I choose to stand before God acknowledging that I am a sinner. I have a world view that is changing to become more understanding of the need to spread the Gospel message because of my increased awareness of my own sin nature. The third and forth areas of Paul’s writing in Romans builds on the first two. Now that mankind has had the obvious evidence of the existence of God in Nature, and now that mankind has seen that he fits somewhere on the list of behaviors that do not honor God, Paul moves on to point out the affects of ungodly living. Mankind began to worship idols, and humans turned against each other as the result of turning their hearts and minds against God. Because of mans’ choice to turn from God, the sinful nature of man was as plain to see in the culture of the day as was the nature of God was plain to see in the natural world He had created. Any man whose heart was not completely heartened could begin to see that Paul†s message about God was full of truth. When I look back at the times in my life when I have lived without God. Or when I live knowing Him without really realizing that He is in control, not me; I begin to feel the emptiness that living without Him brings to me and those around me. Not only emptiness, but sometimes total chaos due to lack of purpose. As I realize my own personal struggles with faith, I can see how this world needs a savior, too! Paul presents evidence of a people and of a culture that has turned from God. As the Jews put themselves above Greeks and dissension grew among so many different cultures, the will of God had become lost. Paul’s writing in Roman’s made clear what God’s will is for mankind. To summarize, Paul presented a biblical world view in Romans that no man could truthfully reject. God can be seen in nature. Just as God can be seen in nature so can the sinful nature of man be seen in culture we live in. All mankind knows this truth in their heart yet all men refuse to totally honor God. â€Å"Since all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God;† Romans 3:23 Paul sets the stage for mankind to accept the Gospel message of forgiveness of sins through Jesus Christ. Thank God for the inspired writing that is the Book of Romans. It can inspire all its’ reader to take a trip on the Roman Road to Salvation.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

The Field Of Clinical Psychology - 1793 Words

What compels a person to jump in front of a train? How does a person lose themselves to the point of oblivion? What kind of circumstances causes a person to numb themselves to the point of incoherence? How does one recover from an extensive amount of trauma? Those questions and many others gripped my mind the night my best friend wept in my arms after her mother committed suicide. Those are the type of questions I wanted answers to, and the questions that have propelled me to where I am now. Since that utterly heart wrenching moment, I have been enamored by the complexity of the human mind. Studying psychology for the past four years has allowed me to become much more passionate about people and mental health. The field of clinical†¦show more content†¦While there, I contributed to a continued decade-long research effort seeking to understand why Ghanaians lack the mental health issues that are so prevalent in Western culture – particularly anxiety and depression. The project required extensive interviewing of participants to incorporate into previous years’ survey data results. I sat one-on-one with numerous locals, who told me tragic stories of their upbringings, recent tribulations, pains and struggles. I was a stranger to them, yet the transparency from each participant was remarkable. They each spoke of how God had a purpose for them, even though their circumstances were not ideal, and how they didn’t need to dwell on the bad because they have been blessed in other areas in their lives. The Ghanaian people possessed an astonishing ability to contact the present moment more fully as a conscious human being and to change, or persist in, behavior when doing so serves valued ends, psychological flexibility, that Americans seem to lack. After those three weeks in Ghana, I had a newfound desire to learn, to research, and to counsel. These experiences, these moments I have encountered in my life, have all served as pathways to what I am to become ultimately. I believe that these experiences would help me to become successful if accepted into the graduate counselor education program. Through my experiences, I have become aware of the assets and challenges I possess that would affect my studies in theShow MoreRelatedEssay about Examination of Clinical Psychology1197 Words   |  5 PagesRunning head: EXAMINATION OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Examination of Clinical Psychology University of Phoenix PST/480 Karen Wilson Nov 14, 2011 Examination of Clinical Psychology Clinical psychology is a very important as well as popular part of the field of psychology that is used very often. To begin, a definition of clinical psychology will be included. 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